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    【中国国学幼儿园联盟】旗袍

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    志高 发表于 2019-3-29 12:00:08 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式
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    旗袍,中国和世界华人女性的传统服装 ,被誉为中国国粹和女性国服   。虽然其定义和产生的时间至今还存有诸多争议,但它仍然是中国悠久的服饰文化中最绚烂的现象和形式之一。
    旗袍形成于上个世纪20年代 ,有部分学者认为其源头可以追溯到先秦两汉时代的深衣  ,民国20年代之后成为最普遍的女子服装,由中华民国政府于1929年确定为国家礼服之一。
    50年代后,旗袍在大陆渐渐被冷落,尤其文革中被视为“封建糟粕”、“资产阶级情调”遭受批判。
    80年代之后随着传统文化在内地被重新重视,以及影视文化、时装表演、选美等带来的影响,旗袍不仅逐渐在大陆地区复兴,还遍及世界各个时尚之地。
    1984年,旗袍被国务院指定为女性外交人员礼服。
    从1990年北京亚运会起,历次大陆举行的奥运会、亚运会以及国际会议、博览会多选择旗袍作为礼仪服装。
    2011年5月23日,旗袍手工制作工艺成为国务院批准公布第三批国家级非物质文化遗产之一。
    2014年11月,在北京举行的第22届APEC会议上,中国政府选择旗袍作为与会各国领导人夫人的服装。
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     楼主| 志高 发表于 2019-3-29 12:53:58 | 只看该作者
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    2019-3-29 12:53:58 看楼主
    本帖最后由 志高 于 2019-3-29 13:00 编辑

    旗袍之样式起源论及旗袍风尚的起始时间,通常认为在20世纪民国时期,郑逸梅先生即称 “原来女子在清代穿短衣,不穿旗袍,旗袍在民国后始御之”  。至于具体的年份,以往的研究相对比较含糊。周锡保先生和张爱玲女士均以为旗袍的流行在1921年以后,周氏还以1923年的画报等资料推断,所谓旗袍在其时的上海数十人中不过一二。事实上,以当时上海的新闻界对社会现象敏感程度,一种新式样的风行必然会引起广泛的关注,但是在1925年5月以前的如《申报》等报纸上很难查到有关于旗袍的文字,而大量资料为旗袍在1925年的出现提供了佐证 。在作为旧帝都的北京,也有记载表明旗袍时尚始于1925年 。因此,将旗袍流行的起始时间视为1925年当为合理。

    旗袍的样式起源,在学术界争论很多,主要观点有:
    第一种以周锡保先生《中国古代服饰史 为代表,认为旗袍即是从清代旗女的袍服直接发展而来。但也有学者认为:“民国旗袍虽然具有类似于旗女之袍的形式,却不再具有旗女之袍的涵义,如果完全认为民国旗袍是直接由旗女之袍发展而来,未免有失偏颇”。第二种以袁杰英教授《中国旗袍 以及包铭新教授《中国旗袍》 《近代中国女装实录》 为代表,认为旗袍和旗装袍有一定继承关系,但同时认为旗袍的源头应是西周麻布窄形筒装或先秦两汉深衣。江南大学崔荣荣教授也在著作《近代汉族民间服饰全集》中说:“有些人质疑旗袍是满族服饰……我认为这些认知是片面和表面化的,汉族的袍服已有2000多年的历史,而满族的袍和褂的历史渊源又从哪里来的呢?答案我想很容易得到 。”国学大师章太炎亦认为:“昔诸葛亮造筒袖铠……满洲之服,其筒袖铠之绪也 。”将满族服饰的源头追溯到三国时期的蜀汉服饰。第三种以王宇清《历代妇女袍服考实》 为代表,认为中国妇女所穿的袍,远溯、唐、、明时代,并不是只有在清代旗女才穿袍服。他认为旗女之袍对民国旗袍有影响,但不认为二者有直接继承关系,因此认为民国旗袍称之为“旗”袍并不合适,所以他倡导旗袍改名为“褀袍”,并把“台北旗袍研究会”改名为“台北褀袍研究会”。多年以来,台湾服装界人士一直呼吁为褀袍正名”。第四种以卞向阳教授《论旗袍的流行起源》 为代表,认为旗袍是中国服装传统的西 化变异。融合了旗袍马甲和文明新装的特点, 同时又结合了西式裙装的配伍形式, 构成了既有西方流行的影子而不同于中国传统袍服,又具有鲜明中国特色和时代象征的新时尚流行和服装审美的特点,可为中西服饰交融的设计典范。他同时认为“旗袍”名称的起源是一种“误称”,因为较早倡导旗袍的群体都是都市中受西学影响较深、追求男女平等反对封建礼教的新女性、学生等社会群体,她(他)们绝大多数是汉族人,她(他)们的祖先在清初经过流血抗争才为汉族妇女取得不穿满式服装的权利,她们不可能去复辟帝制时代的、还是异族压迫者的服饰,所以旗装袍在民国复辟的条件并不具备


    而民国之时“旗袍”的称呼之所以最终会流行开,是因为整个清代,汉族女装依然保留汉族女性传统的“上衣下裳”制。除了贵族命妇礼服外,寻常女子一般并不穿袍服,而旗女不论贵族女性礼服还是寻常女子的日常服饰却都是袍服。因此在长达近300年时间的潜移默化下,普通人已经习惯了“女子穿袍=旗女之袍”的历史记忆,所以在民国旗袍开始出现的时候会给普通人一种这是“旗袍”的联想。实际上民国旗袍首倡群体并不承认“旗袍”这个称呼,而是“只叫它做长衫、长衣或长袍,与男性服装混为一词,1926年2月27日上海《民国日报》有短文《袍而不旗》,提议改称“中华袍”。又有人提议叫做褀袍的,但兜兜转转的,最后还是叫回旗袍了。”
    居《“旗袍”和“褀袍”称谓考证》考据:民国官方文件、信函、公文以及学校教材中尽管出现了与时传“旗袍”一致样式的服装,但并没有出现“旗袍”称谓而是多用“女子礼服——衣”等称谓。因此“旗袍”的称谓并非官方称谓,而是缘起于民间约定俗成的通俗叫法。
    第五种认为旗袍源自袄裙。1940年1月《良友画报》记述短袄长裙经过旗袍马甲的演变,最终形成旗袍,民国学者曹聚仁、李寓一也持有同样观点 。
    第六种认为女子穿旗袍是蓄意模仿男子着装、醉心于男女平权的结果


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